Born in 1859, Anastasios Papoulas entered politics in his early twenties eventually becoming a close friend and confidant of King Constantine I. Though inexperienced in combat, he was appointed commander of Greek forces in Asia Minor by Constantine in late 1920, replacing Gen. Leonidas Paraskevopoulos. His offensive to establish Greek control over western Anatolia was halted at the First Battle of Inonu in January 1921. After being reinforced, Papoulas resumed his offensive on March 23, however his army, numbering 100,000 men, were again defeated at the Second Battle of Inonu on March 28-30.
He was relieved of command by Constantine, but continued to command forces at the Battles of Eskisehir (August 16-17) and Battle of Sakarya (August 24-September 16) before taking command of retreating Greek forces from Afyon Karahisar, from late August to September 9, narrowly preventing a rout by the Turkish army.
Following war's end in 1922, Papoulas became a strong opponent to the Monarchy, after the establishment of the Greek Republic, as a supporter of the Eleftherios Venizelos government during the late 1920s to the early 1930s. He led a coup in support of the Venizelos' Liberal party on March 1, 1935, and his failure resulted in his capture and eventual execution for treason on March 24.
- Forster, Edward S. A Short History of Modern Greece, 1821-1940, London, 1941.