Difference between revisions of "Cyril Lucaris"

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'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or '''Cyril Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' (1572-June 1637) was a Greek prelate and theologian and a native of [[Crete]]. He later became the Patriarch of Alexandria as '''Cyril III''' and Patriarch of Constantinople as '''Cyril I'''. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and dominated its history in the 17th century.
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'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or '''Cyril Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' ([[November 13]], [[1572]] - [[June 27]],  [[1638]]) was a Greek prelate and theologian and a native of [[Crete]]. He later became the [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I'''. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since the [[fall of Constantinople]] in [[1453]], and dominated its history in the 17th century.
  
In his youth he travelled through Europe, studying at Venice and Padua, and at Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by John Calvin. In 1602 he was elected Patriarch of Alexandria, and in 1621 Patriarch of Constantinople.
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Patriarch Cyril was born Konstantinos Loukaris in [[Heraklion]], [[Crete]] in [[1572]]. In his youth, he travelled throughout Europe, studying at Venice, Padua and Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith of John Calvin. He was ordained a [[deacon]] in [[1583]], a little later [[priest]] and, in [[1601]], was elected [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] at age 29, succeeding his uncle [[Meletius I of Constantinople|Meletius Pegas]]. In [[1612]], he served as caretaker [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] and, on [[November 4]], [[1620]], was elected to the post.
  
Due to Turkish oppression combined with the proselitisation of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit missionaries, there was a shortage of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and Greek language. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic churches were built next to Orthodox ones; since Orthodox priests were in short demand something had to be done. Due to good relations with the Anglicans, in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton of London built a church for the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 the Greek Orthodox Church in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester College, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall), to become a college for the Greeks, but these plans never came to fruition.
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Due to Turkish oppression combined with the proselytism of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit missionaries, there was a shortage of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and [[Greek language]]. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic churches built next to Orthodox ones; Orthodox [[priest]]s were in short demand. Lucaris fought the influence of Roman Catholicism among his flock. He had a printing press established in Constantinople to publish books and enlighten the believers and also had the Bible translated into modern Greek by Maximus Kallipolitis.
  
In 1753 the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened a school of thought called [[Athoniada]] at [[Mount Athos]], but the Orthodox and Catholics insisted to the Turkish authorities that this should be closed. In 1759 the Athos School was closed. The next option was to send students abroad to study, as long as it was not Catholic thought. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar to Orthodox ones.
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It is alleged that the great aim of Loukaris' life was to reform the Orthodox Church on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In [[1629]], he published his famous ''Confession'' which was basically Calvinistic in doctrine but, as far as possible, accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. This started a controversy in the Orthodox Church which culminated, in [[1691]], in a convocation of a synod, by Dositheos, [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], which condemned the Confession and Calvinist doctrines.  
  
It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629 he published his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine), but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 in the convocation by Dositheos, Patriarch of Jerusalem, of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned.  
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Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the Archbishops of Canterbury is extremely  interesting. It was in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos — later to become [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] (1636-1639) — was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library.  
  
Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the Archbishops of Canterbury is extremely  interesting. It was in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos—later to become Patriarch of Alexandria (1636-1639)—was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library.
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Lucaris was five times deposed and banished at the instigation of his Orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, who were his bitter enemies. However, each time he was restored. Finally, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad III was about to set out for war against the Persians, the patriarch was accused of designing to stir up the Cossacks. To avoid trouble during his absence, the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries on [[June 27]], [[1638]]. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friends, only brought back to [[Constantinople]] after many years.
 
 
Lucaris was several times temporarily deposed and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, who were his bitter enemies. Finally, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad III was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries in June 1637. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friends, and only brought back to Constantinople after many years.
 
  
 
The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church.
 
The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church.
  
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==References==
 
This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229]).
 
This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229]).
 
{{start box}}
 
{{succession|
 
before=[[Meletius I of Alexandria|Meletius I]]|
 
title=[[List of Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria|Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
 
years=1601 – 1620|
 
after=[[Gerasimius I of Alexandria|Gerasimius I]]|}}
 
{{succession|
 
before=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Anthimus II of Constantinople|Anthimus II]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]|
 
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|
 
years=1612, 1620 &ndash; 1623, 1623 &ndash; 1630, 1630 &ndash; 1633, 1633 &ndash; 1634, 1634 &ndash; 1635, 1637 &ndash;1638|
 
after=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople|Gregory IV]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
 
{{end box}}
 
  
  
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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*[http://www.gec.gr/history/KLoukaris.htm Cyril Lucaris - biography by Hadjiantoniou]
 
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the Calvinist Patriarch]
 
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the Calvinist Patriarch]
 
* http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ (Short bio with picture)
 
* http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ (Short bio with picture)
 
* http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm (book review of "''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople''")
 
* http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm (book review of "''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople''")
 
* http://www.cresourcei.org/creedcyril.html (''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'')
 
* http://www.cresourcei.org/creedcyril.html (''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'')
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*[http://www.gec.gr/dig_lib/minima8.htm Η ομολογία του Κυρίλλου Λουκάρεως (ελληνικά)]
  
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
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[[Category:Ecumenical Patriarchs]]
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[[Category:1638 deaths]]
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[[Category:1572 births]]
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[[Category:Executed people]]
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[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]

Latest revision as of 19:21, February 25, 2012

Cyrillos Lukaris or Cyril Lucaris or Cyril Lucar (November 13, 1572 - June 27, 1638) was a Greek prelate and theologian and a native of Crete. He later became the Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril I. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and dominated its history in the 17th century.

Patriarch Cyril was born Konstantinos Loukaris in Heraklion, Crete in 1572. In his youth, he travelled throughout Europe, studying at Venice, Padua and Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith of John Calvin. He was ordained a deacon in 1583, a little later priest and, in 1601, was elected Patriarch of Alexandria at age 29, succeeding his uncle Meletius Pegas. In 1612, he served as caretaker Patriarch of Constantinople and, on November 4, 1620, was elected to the post.

Due to Turkish oppression combined with the proselytism of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit missionaries, there was a shortage of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and Greek language. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic churches built next to Orthodox ones; Orthodox priests were in short demand. Lucaris fought the influence of Roman Catholicism among his flock. He had a printing press established in Constantinople to publish books and enlighten the believers and also had the Bible translated into modern Greek by Maximus Kallipolitis.

It is alleged that the great aim of Loukaris' life was to reform the Orthodox Church on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629, he published his famous Confession which was basically Calvinistic in doctrine but, as far as possible, accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. This started a controversy in the Orthodox Church which culminated, in 1691, in a convocation of a synod, by Dositheos, Patriarch of Jerusalem, which condemned the Confession and Calvinist doctrines.

Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the Archbishops of Canterbury is extremely interesting. It was in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos — later to become Patriarch of Alexandria (1636-1639) — was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library.

Lucaris was five times deposed and banished at the instigation of his Orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, who were his bitter enemies. However, each time he was restored. Finally, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad III was about to set out for war against the Persians, the patriarch was accused of designing to stir up the Cossacks. To avoid trouble during his absence, the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries on June 27, 1638. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friends, only brought back to Constantinople after many years.

The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church.

References

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [1]).


External links