Charalambidis began his career with Cyprus club APOEL FC where he became a regular, appearing 122 times, and leading them to two titles in 2003 and 2004. He then signed an 18 month contract with Panathinaikos FC for the 2004-05 season. In 2006 he was transfered to PAOK as part of the deal that sent Dimitris Salpiggidis the other way.
In 2007, Charalambidis transferred to Carl Zeiss Jena in the German 2. Bundesliga. He made a total of 12 appearances scoring but one goal and was released by mutual consent. He returned that same year to Cyprus and APOEL. In the summer of 2016 Charalambidis signed a two-year contract at AEK Larnaca.
Charalambidis has been capped so far (May 2018) 93 times for the Cyprus national football team. He has scored 12 goals, including 2 - coming in as a substitute - on October 7, 2006 against the Republic of Ireland in a 5-2 Cyprus triumph.