Kostas Polychroniou was a Greek footballer of the 1950s - 1960s.
Polychroniou was born in Platanistos on the island of Euboea, on November 12, 1936. He started his career, in 1954, as a forward but quickly turned into Olympiakos' regular defensive midfielder and long-serving captain. Among his specialties were guarding opposing forwards, the most noteworthy of which was Pele in the July 4, 1961 Olympiakos - FC Santos friendly.
Polychroniou ended his career after the 1968 season. He was capped 27 times by the Greek National Football Team. At 15 of those game he was the captain of the squad.
After his playing career was over, Polychroniou turned to coaching and had a 4-year tenure (1994 - 1998 coaching 34 games) with the Greek National Team. Other teams he coached include Larisa FC (1979 - 1980), Rodos FC (1982 - 1983), Doxa Drama (1984), Apollon Athens (1985), Olympiakos (1993 - 1994), Paniliakos (2001).