Dimitri Kitsikis

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Dimitri Kitsikis (Greek Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης) (born 2 June 1935 in Athens, Greece) is a Greek Turkologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics. He has also published poetry in French and Greek.


D. Kitsikis is a Turkologist and Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics at the University of Ottawa in Canada since 1970, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and visitor Professor in several universities in Turkey, China and Russia; he received his doctoral degree in 1963 from the Sorbonne, Paris. He derives his origin from a notable Greek-Orthodox family of intellectuals and acclaimed professionals of 19th-century Greece. He holds both French and Canadian citizenships.

During the Greek civil war, at the age of 12, he was sent to a boarding school in Paris, by Octave Merlier, the head of the French Institute in Athens, because his mother had been condemned to death as a communist fighter. He stayed in France for 23 years with his British wife Anne Hubbard, whom he had married in Scotland in 1955, with his two first children, Tatiana and Nicolas. He was expelled from the French University for his active participation as a Maoist in the French student revolt of May 1968. Since 1958, Dimitri Kitsikis had traveled to the P.R. of China where he became a committed Maoist. He was then promoted to associate and later to full professor, after being invited to Canada in 1970 by the University of Ottawa. Since then, he has been living and working in Ottawa as well as in Athens.

Since he was a child he had an idée fixe. He wanted not only to reconcile Greeks and Turks, but also to unite them into a Greek Turkish Confederation. A devout Orthodox Christian, he came to sympathise with the Turkish religion of Bektashism-Alevi and sought to ally it with Orthodoxy, in order to form a basis for a future political union between Athens and Ankara. Believing in the collaboration of religious communities, as in the millet system of the Ottoman Empire, he worked closely with shia Muslims in Iran, Jews in Israel and Hindu vaishnavs in India. Although a member of the official Church of Greece, he always sympathised with the Old-Calendarist movement, the adherents of which reject the Church’s use of the Gregorian (New) calendar.

Since the 1970s he has taught Chinese and Turkish history, political ideologies and geopolitics at a number of universities in the West. His plethora of books have been translated in many languages, while articles concerning his work have been published in Chinese, the Balkan languages, German, French, English, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. He also taught at the Universities of Boğaziçi in Istanbul and Bilkent in Ankara, where he became one of the closest friends and advisers of the President of the Turkish Republic, Turgut Özal. In Greece, he was resident researcher at the National Institute of Social Studies and taught at Deree College, the American College in Athens.

He has been a close friend and advisor of Greek Premier Konstantinos Karamanlis senior in the 1960s and 70s. He contributes regularly with political articles to Greek magazines and, since 1996, publishes in Athens a Greek quarterly journal of Geopolitics named after his civilisation model, «Endiamese Perioche, Ἐνδιάμεση Περιοχή» or “Intermediate Region”.

He is re-married to Ada (Ἀδαμαντία), coming originally from historical Mystras, in Laconia, Peloponnese, whom he has two children with, Agis and Kranay.

Philosophy, Thought, Poetry and Achievements

Dimitri Kitsikis, since the 1960s, has been the recognised theorist, first in Greece and then in Turkey, of the idea of a Greek-Turkish Confederation, which he has promoted by influencing statesmen, politicians, journalists, artists and thinkers in both countries. His books in Turkish became best sellers in Turkey and were praised by the Prime Minister of Turkey. He kept close ties with Prime Ministers Konstantinos Karamanlis senior of Greece and Turgut Özal of Turkey as well as the Chinese leaders Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. Because of their controversial nature, his books in Greek were even debated in the Hellenic Parliament. While his father, Nikos Kitsikis, rector of the Polytechnical School, was a leftist Senator and Member of Parliament, Dimitri Kitsikis is averse towards the parliamentary system, which he regards as foreign to the Greek model of a government by the people or laocracy, Greek “λαοκρατία”.

He has been the initiator in France of the branch of the History of International Relations that deals with propaganda and pressure as a government weapon of foreign policy. He also opened the way to the study of technocracy in international politics. He has insisted that religion is an essential component of international politics and strove by conferences and other means to facilitate the collaboration between the four main religions of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Hinduism. He organised Orthodox dialogues with Iranian Shiites and Indian Hindus. He worked with Israeli Jews and fundamentalist Catholics from Quebec, where he, along with his students, produced the quarterly journal “Aquila” (eagle) which, with a double-headed eagle on the front cover promoted the Byzantine imperial idea amongst catholic circles. Everywhere and at all times, the idea of a global Hellenism is prevalent in his works and his teaching.

He is also a recognised poet with six collections of poetry published by Pierre Jean Oswald (Paris), Naaman (Québec), Kedros (Κέδρος), Hestia (Ἑστία) and Akritas (Ἀκρίτας). In 1991 he was honored with the first Greek-Turkish prize for poetry Abdi İpekçi. Some of his poetry books, namely “Omphalos” (1977), “l’Orocc dans l’âge de Kali” (1985) and “le Paradis perdu sur les barricades” (1989–1993), became part of an anthology of 32 Canadian poets in the book by H. Bouraoui and J. Flamand. His poetic work was included in the Dictionnaire des citations littéraires de l’Ontario français, depuis 1960. His poems were also used in the books by the Greek artist Georgette Kambani.

Kitsikis regards the Greek language as the cornerstone of planetary civilization, and for this reason he deems it an honour for one to be able to write in Greek. He believes that the treatment of the language should be taken out of the hands of Greek philologists who are currently destroying it. He defends the continued use of polytonic Greek and traditional spelling, as well as the freedom to write in whichever literary tone one chooses. He regards as erroneous only the implementation of a Greek form not used from the time of Homer to today.

In 2007, his book "A Comparative History of Greece and China from Antiquity to the Present" was published. The book is notable in that it hones in on the relationship between these two civilisations throughout their entire history spanning three millennia. The study raises two concepts: 1) the Greek and Chinese civilisations in a global context and 2) their political expression during the last 2500 years.

The Dimitri Kitsikis Public Foundation

The Dimitri Kitsikis Public Foundation in Athens, Greece, was formally established under Presidential Decree 129, A 190 (pp. 3425, 3430-3431). The Presidential Decree, published September 15, 2008 in the Gazette of the Government of Greece (ΦΕΚ), can be found at the following link:
[ΦΕΚ A 190/2008]

Published works

(Excluding articles)

  1. Propagande et pressions en politique internationale. La Grèce et ses revendications à la Conférence de la Paix, 1919-1920 – Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1963.
  2. Yunan propagandası –İstanbul, Meydan Neşriyat, 1964. (2nd edition : İstanbul, Kaynak Kitaplar,1974)
  3. « La Grèce électorale », International Guide to Electoral Statistics (edited by Stein Rokkan and Jean Meyriat), Paris, Mouton, 1969.
  4. « La question chypriote », Encyclopaedia Universalis – Paris, vol.4, 1969.
  5. « De la Grèce byzantine à la Grèce contemporaine », Encyclopaedia Universalis – Paris, vol. 7, 1970.
  6. « Information et Décision. La Grèce face à l’invasion allemande dans les Balkans, 1940-1941», in La Guerre en Méditerranée – Paris, Centre national de la Recherche scientifique, 1971.
  7. « Nationalisme dans les Balkans : Etude comparée des révolutions turque de 1908 et grecque de 1909 », The Canadian Historical Association. Historical Papers 1971.
  8. Le rôle des experts à la Conférence de la Paix. Gestation d’une technocratie en politique internationale - Ottawa, Editions de l’Université d’Ottawa, 1972.
  9. « Evolution de l’élite politique grecque », Social Stratification and Development in the Mediterranean Basin (edited by M. B. Kiray) –Paris and The Hague, Mouton, 1973.
  10. Ἡ Ἑλλάς τῆς 4ης Αὐγούστου καί αἱ Μεγάλαι Δυνάμεις. Τά ἀρχεῖα τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ Ὑπουργείου Ἐξωτερικῶν, 1936-1941 - Athens, Ikaros, 1974. (2nd edition : Athens, Eleuthere Skepsis, 1990).
  11. « Greece », Balkanistica (edited by Kenneth E. Naylor) – Ann Arbor, Slavica Publishers, 1974.
  12. «Eleuthère Vénizélos», Hommes d’Etat célèbres – Paris, (edited by Sorbonne professor François Crouzet, Editions Mazenod, vol. 5, 1975.
  13. Omphalos, Poème – Paris, Pierre Jean Oswald, 1977.
  14. Ἑλλάς καί ξένοι, 1919-1967. Ἀπό τά ἀρχεῖα τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ Ὑπουργείου Ἐξωτερικῶν - Athens, Hestia, 1977.
  15. Συγκριτικὴ Ἱστορία Ἑλλάδος καὶ Τουρκίας στὸν 20ό αἰῶνα - Athens, Hestia, 1978. (2nd edition supplemented : Hestia, 1990. 3rd edition: Hestia, 1998).
  16. « Grande Idée et hellénoturquisme. Essai d’interprétation nouvelle de l’histoire néo-grecque », Actes du IIe Congrès international des Etudes du Sud-Est européen, 1970 – Athènes, Association internationale des Etudes du Sud-Est européen, 1978, tome III.
  17. Ὀμφαλός, Ποίημα - Athens, Kedros, 1979.
  18. Greece :Communism in a Non Western Setting», Communism and Political Systems in Western Europe (edited by D. E. Albright) – Boulder (Colorado), Westview Press, 1979, XXII.
  19. Yırmı Asırda Karşılaştırmalı Türk-Yunan Tarihi – İstanbul, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Dergisi, II-8, 1980. (20th Century Turkish-Greek Comparative History).
  20. Ἱστορία τοῦ ἑλληνοτουρκικοῦ χώρου ἀπό τόν Ἐ. Βενιζέλο στὸν Γ. Παπαδόπουλο, 1928-1973 - Athens, Hestia, 1981. (2nd edition supplemented : Hestia, 1995).
  21. « The Turkish-Greek War, 1919-1922, in World Perspective », International Conference on Atatürk. Proceedings - Vol. 2, doc.43, Istanbul, Bogaziçi University Press, 1981.
  22. « Bulgaria in Balkan History between the Two World Wars » , Pervi Mejdunaroden Kongres po Bulgaristika Dokladi (First International Conference on Bulgarian Studies), Sofia, Bulgarian Academy of the Sciences, 1982.
  23. L’ Orocc, dans l’âge de Kali. Poème – Sherbrooke (Québec), Naaman, 1985, illustrated.
  24. L’Empire ottoman – Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1985. (Collection « Que sais-je ? », no. 2222). 2nd ed. 1991. 3rd ed. 1994.
  25. « L’espace ottoman dans l’esprit de Charles de Moüy, dans la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle », L’Empire ottoman, la République de Turquie et la France (edited by H. Batu) –Paris - Istanbul, Isis, 1986.
  26. « Κύπρος 1955-1959 : Τριτοκοσμικὴ συνειδητοποίηση καὶ ἐπιπτώσεις ἐπὶ τῆς Ἑλλάδος », Cypriot Studies Society. Proceedings of the 2nd International Cypriological Conference– vol. 3, Nicosia, 1987.
  27. Greek Synthetic Thought. An Opposition to Western Divisive Thought of the Renaissance – San Francisco, Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1988.
  28. Ἱστορία τῆς Ὀθωμανικῆς Αὐτοκρατορίας, 1280-1924 - Athens, Hestia, 1988, 244 pages (2nd ed., 1989, 3rd ed. expanded, 1996.
  29. « Populism, Eurocommunism and the Communist Party of Greece », Communist Parties in Western Europe (edited by M. Waller) – Oxford, Blackwell, 1988.
  30. « Le degré de puissance de l’Empire ottoman, au cours de la première guerre mondiale», La Moyenne Puissance au XXe siècle (edited by J.-C. Allain) – Paris, Institut d’Histoire des Conflits contemporains, 1988.
  31. El Imperio otomano – México, Fondo de Cultura Econόmica, 1989.
  32. Ὁ Ἄνδυς στὸν καιρὸ τῆς Καλῆς. Ποίημα - Athens, Hestia, 1989. (Illustrated by Georgette Κambani).
  33. « Les Turcs et la mer Egée : essai de géohistoire », Turquie, Moyen-Orient, Communauté européenne (edited by J. Thobie) – Paris, L’Harmattan, 1989.
  34. « Dimitri Kitsikis, œuvre poétique », Ecriture franco-ontarienne d’aujourd’hui (edited by H.Bouraoui and J.Flamand) – Ottawa, Les Editions du Vermillon, 1989.
  35. Ἡ τρίτη ἰδεολογία καὶ ἡ Ὀρθοδοξία - Athens, Ακρίτας, 1990. (2nd edition, Hestia, 1998).
  36. «Ὀθωμανικὴ Αὐτοκρατορία», and «Τουρκία», Παγκόσμια Ἱστορία - Athens, τόμος Β' , Ἐκδοτικὴ Ἀθηνῶν, 1990.
  37. Le paradis perdu sur les barricades. Poème – Athens, Akritas, 1993. (Illustrated by Turkish artist Mürşide İçmeli).
  38. «The Spreading of Western Satanism in Islamic and Orthodox Societies », First International Symposium on Orthodoxy and Islam 1990, Athens – Tehran, Iran, Center for International Cultural Studies, 1994.
  39. «Les anciens calendaristes, depuis 1923, et la montée de l’intégrisme en Grèce», Grèce : identités, territoires, voisinages, modernisations, (edited by P.Y. Péchoux), special edition of CEMOTI, no. 17, 1994.
  40. « Le concept de relations internationales et le service diplomatique ottoman au XXe siècle », Aspects of Ottoman History (edited by Amy Singer) – Jerusalem, The Hebrew University - Magnes Press, 1994.
  41. The Old Calendarists and the Rise of Religious Conservatism in Greece – Etna, California, Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, 1995.
  42. « Faith as Seen by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and its Impact on Westernized Third World Societies », Second International Symposium on Orthodoxy and Islam 1992, Athens – Tehran, Iran, Center for International Cultural Studies, 1995.
  43. « Alevism as a Link between Orthodoxy and Islam », Third International Symposium on Orthodoxy and Islam 1994, Tehran – Tehran, Iran, Center for International Cultural Studies, 1995, IV-97
  44. Πτώση. Ποίημα - Athens, Ἀκρίτας, 1996. (Illustrated by Georgette Κambani).
  45. O Império otomano – Porto, Portugal, Rés Editora, 1996.
  46. « Ἡ εὐρωπαϊκὴ σκέψη τοῦ Παναγιώτη Κανελλόπουλου », Nea Hestia. A tribute to Panagiotes Kanellopoulos, 1902-1986 - Athens, Hestia, 1996.
  47. Türk-Yunan İmparatorluğu. Arabölge gerçeği ışığında Osmanlı Tarihine bakış – İstanbul, İletişim Yayınları, 1996. (The Turkish-Greek Empire. An inquiry into Ottoman History through the prism of the Intermediate Region).
  48. Ἐνδιάμεση Περιοχή – Quarterly journal issued and directed by Dimitri Kitsikis since the Fall of 1996.
  49. Osmanlijsko carstvo – Belgrad, Yugoslavia, Platon Editions, 1998.
  50. « Ἐνδιάμεση Περιοχὴ καὶ Ἑλληνισμός : ἀνθρωπογένεση καὶ ἀνθρωποσυντέλεια », Minutes of the 2nd Pan-Eleian Conference (edited by Anastos Demetropoulos) – Ancient Olympia, 1998.
  51. « Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης, Λέσβιος ποιητής »,Αnthology of Lesbian Poets (edited by Costas G. Missios) - Mytilene, 1998, vol. 10.
  52. « The Intermediate Region : A Common Civilization between the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River », Dialogue of Civilizations ? – Tehran, Iran, 1999.
  53. «Multiculturalism in the Ottoman Empire : The Alevi Religious and Cultural Community », Multiculturalism and the History of International Relations from the 18th Century up to the Present (edited by Pierre Savard and Brunello Vigezzi) – Milano, Editioni Unicopli & Les Presses de l’ Université d’ Ottawa, 1999.
  54. « Women in Christian and Muslim Families », Woman and Family in Christian Orthodoxy and Islam - (Fourth International Congress on Orthodoxy and Islam, Athens, 1997) – Athens, Publications of the Greek Iranian League, 1999.
  55. « Géopolitique de la Région intermédiaire », Société Royale du Canada. Académie des Lettres et des Sciences humaines. Présentations – Ottawa, vol.52, 1999.
  56. Osmanskata Imperija – Sofia, Bulgaria, Kama Editions, 2000.
  57. « Ἡ Ἐνδιάμεση Περιοχή », Γεωπολιτικὴ καὶ Ἑλλάδα (edited by K. Kouros) – Athens, Esoptron, 2001.
  58. Τὸ Βυζαντινὸ πρότυπο διακυβερνήσεως καὶ τὸ τέλος τοῦ κοινοβουλευτισμοῦ, Athens, Esoptron, 2001.
  59. « La structure politico-religieuse de la synallélie, en tant qu’antithèse du système occidental », Constructions identitaires et pratiques sociales (edited by Jean-Pierre Wallot) – Ottawa, Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa, 2002.
  60. Pour une Etude scientifique du fascisme – Nantes, Ars Magna Editions, (Les Documents), 2005.
  61. Jean-Jacques Rousseau et les origines françaises du fascisme – Nantes, Ars Magna Editions, (Les Documents), 2006.
  62. Le national-bolchevisme – Nantes, Ars Magna Editions, (Les Documents), 2006.
  63. Na perekrestke tsivilizatsiy : Istorija Vizantii- Osmanskaja Imperija (Paul Lemerle-D. Kitsikis) – Moscow, Ves Mir Editions, 2006. (Civilisations at the Crossroads : Byzantine History - Ottoman History).
  64. Ἡ σημασία τοῦ μπεκτασισμοῦ-ἀλεβισμοῦ γιὰ τὸν ἑλληνισμό - Athens, Hekate, 2006.
  65. Συγκριτικὴ Ἱστορία Ἑλλάδος-Κίνας ἀπὸ τὴν ἀρχαιότητα μέχρι σήμερα - Athens, Herodotos Editions, 2006.
  66. «Anti-Atatürk: A Psychological Portrait of Stergiades, “Dictator of Ionia” in 1919-1922, the Greek that failed to Conquer Turkey» , Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Eastern and African Studies, Gastoune, 2007.
  67. La montée du national-bolchevisme dans les Balkans. Le retour à la Serbie de 1830 – Paris, Avatar Editions, 2008.
  68. « Introduction : Beauté du mal », in Jacques Flamand, Décombres de la beauté, Ottawa, Editions du Vermillon, 2008.
  69. « Rumi, the Spirit of the Intermediate Region » in Symposium on Mevlana Celaleddin-Rumi and Intercultural and Civilization Dialogue-Proceedings, Toronto, Canadian Intercultural Dialogue Centre, 2008.
  70. « Ἀριστείδης Στεργιάδης » in Τὸ κτίριο Γερωνυμάκη-Στεργιάδη στὴ συνοικία Σουλτὰν Ἰμπραΐμ, Ἡράκλειο, Κρήτη, ΤΕΕ/ΤΑΚ, 2008 (Illustrated).
  71. « Stergiades: l’homme d’une mission impossible, 1919-1922 », in Aux vents des puissances (Jean-Marc Delaunay, éd), Paris, Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2008.
  72. « Foreword », in Misbah Islam, Decline of Muslim States and Societies, Philadelphia, Xlibris, 2008.
  73. «Grèce. Le Synaspismos tiraillé entre social-démocratie et anarchisme» in "Les gauches radicales", Grande Europe, no. 16, janvier 2010, la Documentation française (special issue).
  74. Ἐθνικομπολσεβικισμός. Πέραν τοῦ φασισμοῦ καὶ τοῦ κομμουνισμοῦ. Ἡ ἐπιρροή του στὰ Βαλκάνια - Athens, Hellenike Anodos, 2010.
  75. « Foreword », in Kemal Karpat & Yetkin Yıdırım eds, The Ottoman Mosaic: Exploring models for Peace by re-Exploring the Past, Seattle, Cune Press, 2010.
  76. « Ottomanism and Fethullah Gülen: From Utopia to Reality »,in Dreaming for a Better World. Contributions of the Gulen Movement, Carleton University, Ottawa, October 24, 2009 (Intercultural Dialogue Institute).

Articles in journals

Regular contributions to monthly journal Trito Mati (Athens), since 1999 and to quarterly Endiamese Perioche (Athens), since 1996, as well as many scholarly articles in: Revue historique; Revue d'Histoire moderne et contemporaine; Revue d'Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale; Revue française de Science politique; Problems of Communism; Turcica; CEMOTI-Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Méditerranée orientale et le Monde Turco-iranien; Social History; Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire moderne; Informations universitaires en Relations internationales; Aquila; Revue d'Histoire diplomatique; Journal of Oriental and African Studies; Cahiers de Jeune Nation; Journal-Institute of Muslim Minorities Affairs; Diplomatiques; The Patristic and Byzantine Review; Relations internationales; Études internationales; Diplomatie; Ἀρχεῖον Οἰκονομικῶν καὶ Κοινωνικῶν Ἐπιστημῶν, Καινούρια Ἐποχή, Νέα Οἰκονομία, Βιομηχανικὴ Ἐπιθεώρηση, Τεχνικὰ Χρονικά, Πολιτικὴ Οἰκονομικὴ Ἔρευνα, Τότε, Πάντα, Παράδοση, Ἀρχιτεκτονική, Ἐποχές, Νέα Ἑστία, Σύγχρονα Θέματα, Ἑλληνοκινεζικὰ Χρονικά, Orthodox Tradition; Eurasia; The Greek Review of Social Research; Toplum ve Bilim; Aktüel; Moderne Welt-Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen; Grande Europe, and others. Also published are hundreds of newspaper articles.

External links

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