Second Balkan War

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After the Treaty of London at the conclusion of the First Balkan War, Bulgaria felt slighted in view of the preliminary pre-war agreements with Serbia as to the partition of Ottoman territories. The problem arose because, when Greece prepared to enter the conflict, there was no time to re-negotiate and the First Balkan War was declared with an understanding that each country would control whatever territories their forces managed to liberate. Bulgarians felt that they had borne the brunt of the first war and should not be short-changed. As they were the strongest of the original Balkan League nations, they unsuccessfully attempted to impose their demands by force of arms. Defeated by Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria signed an Armistice on July 31, 1913. At the Treaty of Bucharest in August 1913, the final territorial adjustments were made.

Second Balkan Wars
Name Land/Sea Guest(1) General Home (2) General Date Side Treaty
Battle of Kilkis-Lahanas Bulgaria Greeks Jun 19-21 1913 2
Battle of Stromnitsa Bulgaria Greeks Jun 26 1913 2
Battle of Kalimantsi Bulgaria Serbs Jul 15-18 1913 1
Battle of Kresna Gorge Bulgaria Greece 29 July 9 Aug 1913 0

Chronology of Events

  • June 1913
    • Conclusion of a secret Serbian-Greek defensive alliance directed against Bulgaria
    • The Bulgarian Army urges a quick attack on Serbia and Greece, confident of an easy victory
    • Montenegro announces that it will side with Serbia in the event of a Serbian-Bulgarian war
    • Romania warns Bulgaria that it will not remain neutral in a new Balkan war
    • Tsar Ferdinand orders the Bulgarian army to attack without informing his cabinet - his generals are instructed to ignore any halt orders.Bulgaria attacks Greek and Serbian forces in Macedonia.
  • July 1913
    • The Serbs counterattack and gain the initiative, breaking the Bulgarian lines and pushing northeastwards
    • Greek forces push back the Bulgarians
    • Romania declares war on Bulgaria and immediately crosses the Danube with 150,000 men, meeting no Bulgarian resistance
    • The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria, and advances into Eastern Thrace
    • The Turks reoccupy Adrianople and eastern Thrace without meeting Bulgarian resistance
    • Romania agrees to an armistice with Bulgaria
    • A Balkan peace conference is held in Bucharest - on Jul.31, an armistice is signed
    • Serbian victory was a severe setback for Austria -and the German involvement in the Balkans has begun
Ottomans 20,000-30,000
Bulgaria 18,000-20,000
Serbia: 18.500-19,000
Greece: 7,500-8,000
Romania: 1,500-2,000