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Pholegandros, or Folegandros, is a small Greek island of the Aegean Sea, which, together with Sikinos, Ios, Anafi and Santorini, forms the southern part of the Cyclades. Its surface is about 32 square kilometres (12.4 square miles) and it has 700 inhabitants.

Its three small villages, Pholegandros (Chora), Karavostassi and Ano Meria are connected by a paved road.

Few things are known about Pholegandros in ancient times. Its inhabitants were Dorians. Later it came under Athenian rule (see Athens). The island was conquered in 1207 by the Venetian Marco Sanudo and remained under the rule of Venice until 1566, when it was taken by the Ottoman Turks. The Greeks won it back in the 19th century.

The landscape is one of intense contrasts, and includes dangerous cliffs and a large cave. The "capital" of the island (Chora) is built on the edge of a 200-metre high cliff. Karavostassi is the port of Pholegandros. In Ano Meria there is a small but interesting Ecological and Folklore Museum.

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