The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel

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The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel is an epic poem by the Greek poet and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis based on Homer's Odyssey. It is divided into 24 rhapsodies as is the original Odyssey and consists of 33,333 17-syllable verses. Kazantzakis began working on it in 1924 after he returned to Crete from Germany. Before finally publishing the poem in 1938 he had drafted seven different versions. Kazantzakis considered this his most important work. It was fully translated into English in 1958 by Kimon Friar.


Kazantzakis' Odyssey begins when Odysseus returns to Ithaca and decides to undertake new adventures after he soon becomes unsatisfied with his quiet family life. First he travels to Sparta to abduct Helen, the wife of the king of Sparta Menelaus, whose abduction by Paris had led to the Trojan war. He goes to Crete where a conspiracy dethrones the king. There he abandons Helen and continues to Egypt where again a workers' uprising takes place. He leaves again on a journey up the Nile eventually stopping at the lake-source. Upon arrival his companions set up camp and he climbs the mountain in order to concentrate on his 'god'. Upon his return to the lake he sets up his city based on the commandments of his religion. The city is soon destroyed by an earthquake. Odysseus laments his failure to understand the true meaning of god with the sacrifice of his companions. His life transforms into that of an ascetic's life. Odysseus meets Motherth (an incarnation of Buddha), Kapetan Enas (English: Captain Sole), alias Don Quixote and an African village fisherman, alias Christ. He travels further south in Africa while constantly spreading his religion and fighting the advances of death. Eventually he travels to Antarctica and lives with villagers for a year until an iceberg kills him. His death is glorious as it marks his rebirth and unification with the world.


The "Odyssey" represents Kazantzakis' ideology and metaphysical concerns. A central theme is the importance of struggle for its own sake, as opposed to reaching a final goal.

External links

a 1958 review from TIME magazine

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