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The Aliakmon (Modern Greek: Αλιάκμονας, Aliakmonas; Bulgarian and Serbian: Бистрица, Bistritsa/Bistrica;) is the longest river in Greece, with a total length of 322 km (200 miles).

It rises in the northern Pindus mountains in northern Greece on the border with Albania, before flowing southeast then northeast through the Greek peripheries of West and Central Macedonia and then into Lake Kastoria, and into the dam and into the Thermaic Gulf. It waters an extensive area, making it of great importance to agriculture in the region. The river forms the western portion of the delta of the Axios (aka Vardar). The river runs in the prefectures of Kastoria, Grevena, Kozani, Imathia, and Pieria.

The Aliakmon flows through Kastoria, Neapoli, west of Siatista and into the Grevena prefecture and east of Grevena, and to the south of Kozani and into the Polyfytos dam which is 20 km long and about 4 to 5 km wide, and southeast of Aiane, and into the gorges and southeast of Veria and north of Aiginio and northeast of Methone.

In antiquity, Claudius Ptolemy called the chain of mountains in which the river rises (northern Pindus) the Canalovii. According to Julius Caesar, the Aliakmon formed the line of demarcation between Macedon and Thessaly. In the upper part of its course it took a southeast direction through Elimiotis, which it watered; and then, continuing to the northeast, formed the boundary between Pieria, Eordaea, and Imathia. In the time of Herodotus the Aliakmon was apparently joined by the Loudias, or discharge of the lake of Pella; but a change has taken place in the course of the Loudias, which no longer joins the Haliacmon, but flows directly into the Aegean Sea.