Pavlos Karolidis was a Greek historian of the late 19th - early 20th century.
Karolidis was born in 1849 in Androniki (Turkish: Endürlük), Cappadocia, Asia Minor. He studied at the Great School of the Nation in Constantinople and the Evangelical School of Smyrna. In 1867, he enrolled in the School of Philosophy at the University of Athens. He did post-graduate work in Germany and was awarded a Ph.D in philosophy in 1872.
Karolidis returned to Asia Minor and taught, first in Constantinople and later (1876 - 1886) at the Εvangelical School of Smyrna. In 1886, he settled in Athens, where he taught for two months at the "Practical Lyceum". The same year he was elected assistant professor of General History in the University of Athens.
In 1893, was appointed professor of Greek History, succeeding historian Konstantinos Paparrigopoulos.
Between 1893 and 1908, Karolidis published 18 books and 38 articles.
In 1908, he was elected to the Ottoman parliament where he pursued a policy of Greco-Turkish friendship against the expansionism of Bulgaria and Serbia. These ideas often resulted in direct confrontation with other ethnic Greek MPs as well as with official Greece. The outbreak of the First Balkan War made him leave the Ottoman Empire and settle in Germany.
Karolidis returned to his university duties in Athens at the beginning of the academic year 1915 - 1916 and remained there until he was dismissed in 1918, as a royalist. In 1921, Karolidis was reinstated only to be pensioned off in 1923.
Between 1922 and 1929, he produced his best known works: Contemporary History (1922-1929) and History of Greece (1925).