Sieges of Constantinople
There were at least 11 sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. Two sieges resulted in the capture of Constantinople from Greek rule: in 1204 by crusaders and, in 1453, by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II. One resulted in the recapture of Constantinople from Latin (Crusader) rule by the Greeks of Nicaea under Michael VIII Palaiologos.
Persian and Arab Sieges of Constantinople
- The First Siege of Constantinople by Avars and Sassanid Persians in 626
- The First Arab Siege in 674-678
- The Second Arab Siege in 717-718
Sieges by the Bulgars and Rus'
- The First Siege of the Fourth Crusade in 1203, in which Alexius IV was able to usurp the throne after Alexius III fled to thrace.
- The successful Second Siege of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, in which the Byzantines were overwhelmed and the Capital thoroughly sacked.
- An Ottoman siege between 1390 - 1402, interrupted first by the Crusade of Nicopolis then successfully so by the Battle of Ankara.
- The First Ottoman Siege of Constantinople (1422)
- The Second Ottoman Siege and Fall of Constantinople in 1453