Doxato has been known with its present name since the 1600s though there is ample evidence that the area was inhabited much earlier.
There were two massacres that took place in the town of Doxato:
- During the Second Balkan War, on June 30, 1913, retreating Bulgarian troops entered the town, pillaged it and slaughtered 650 of its 1,500 inhabitants.
- During the Axis occupation of World War II, on September 29, 1941, Bulgarian troops executed 350 men from 16 till 50 years old.
The Greek state in recognition of these events named Doxato a municipality.
The population of the town of Doxato has been as follows: