Byzantine Emperors

From Phantis
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλευς), which had formerly meant "king" but now was used in place of Augustus. Other (and to Roman minds, lesser) kings were titled by the neologism Rigas (Gr. Ρήγας;, from the Lat. "Rex"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ;) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles - with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power, - including Kosmokrator ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were occasionally self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks."

[Note: See also the term "Byzantine" with regard to the late Roman Empire. This list begins with Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople, although Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.

Constantinian dynasty

Non-dynastic

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

Leonid dynasty

Justinian dynasty

Non-dynastic

  • Phocas the Tyrant ( ? - 610, ruled 602 - 610) – usurper; betrayed by his son-in-law

Heraclian dynasty

  • Heraclius (or Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
  • Constantine III Heraclius (Κωνσταντίνος Γ' Ηράκλειος) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heracleonas
  • Heracleonas Constantine (Ηρακλεωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; mutilated and deposed
  • Constans II Heraclius (Κώνστας Β' Ηράκλειος) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
  • Constantine IV the Bearded (Κωνσταντίνος Δ' ο Πωγώνατος ) (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
  • Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, & exiled

Non-dynastic

  • Leontius (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, & imprisoned - later executed
  • Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed & executed

Heraclian dynasty

Non-dynastic

  • Philippicus Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed & mutilated
  • Anastasius II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippicus; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
  • Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated & entered monastery

Isaurian dynasty

  • Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
  • Constantine V Copronymus (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
  • Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
  • Constantine V (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
  • Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' Χάζαρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
  • Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
  • Ste. Irene the Athenian (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & exiled to Lesbos

Phocid dynasty

  • Nicephorus I Phocas (Νικηφόρος Α' Φωκάς) ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
  • Stauracius (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nicephorus I; paralyzed
  • Michael I Rhangabes (Μιχαήλ Α' ο Ραγκαβέ) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nicephorus I & master of the palace; deposed & entered monastery

Non-dynastic

  • Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

Phrygian dynasty

  • Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
  • Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
  • Ste. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & entered monastery
  • Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated

Macedonian dynasty

  • Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
  • Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;
  • Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
  • Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
  • Romanus I Lecapenus (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons & entered monastery
  • Romanus II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
  • Nicephorus II Phocas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς ή Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanus II's widow, regent for Basil; assassinated
  • John I Tzimisces (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
  • Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II
  • Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II; silent coemperor with Basil II
  • Zoe I (Ζωή Α') ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
  • Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
  • Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
  • Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
  • Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
  • Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

Non-dynastic

  • Michael VI the Bellicose (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

Comnenid dynasty

  • Isaac I Comnenus (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

Doukid dynasty

  • Constantine X Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
  • Michael VII Ducas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery
  • Romanus IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
  • Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Comnenid dynasty (restored)

Angelid dynasty

Laskarid dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea)

Palaeologid Dynasty (restored to Constantinople)